Investigating Your Local Real Estate Market

Although everything starts at the regional level, you need to fine-tune your perspective and look at your local real estate market, too. All of the same types of economic data that you collect on a regional basis are important in evaluating your local real estate market.

MJOi With real estate investing, deciding where to invest is frequently more important than choosing the specific rental property. You can have a rental property that meets the needs of the market, but if it's located in a declining area where the demand is weak or an area with overbuilding and an excess of available properties, your investment won't perform financially. (These are the properties that perform the worst over time but are typically the types of properties highly touted by the infomercial gurus who love to brag about how much real estate they control but rarely tell you about their long-term investment returns.)

Likewise, you need to determine the areas that may be too richly priced, because your cash flow and future appreciation will be hurt if you overpay for a property. Often properties in the best neighborhoods in town are so overpriced that there is little appreciation potential and thus we advise you to seek other properties unless you're content with low returns similar to investing in safe and low yielding bonds.

In many local real estate markets, the demand for real estate is impacted more by the regional economy than by the local economy. For example, bedroom communities have high demand for rental homes and apartments even though they may only have service sector jobs in the immediate area, because the higher income professional and manufacturing jobs are concentrated in other areas of the region.

In the sections that follow, we help you research quantitative issues to consider when deciding where to invest in real estate. But you also must consider other factors, for instance, the weather or recreation and entertainment options — all key factors in the livability or quality of life for citizens. All of these criteria contribute to the overall desirability of a local market area and should be important considerations for the real estate investor. And don't underestimate the image or reputation of an area.

Supply and demand

The supply and demand for real estate in a given market has a direct impact on the financial performance of your income property. And although we firmly believe that the overall economic prospects for a region or community are vital, you must also find supply and demand information about the specific type of real estate that you plan to purchase.

Obviously, the best environment for investing in real estate is one with strong demand and limited supply. When the demand exceeds supply, shortages of available real estate push up prices.

Both sides of the equation — supply and demand — have indicators that you should evaluate in forming your consensus about the strength of the local real estate market. In the sections that follow, we take a close look at each indicator in detail. Supply-side indicators include building permits, the rate at which new properties have been rented or absorbed into the market, and the availability of alternatives for similar real estate. Demand indicators include occupancy and rent levels.

The overall relationship between supply and demand determines the market conditions for real estate. For example, a large number of pending or recently issued building permits, weak absorption or rental of new properties, and an excess of income property listings that have been on the market for an extended time are all indicators that the supply of a specific product type is greater than the demand. Such market conditions soon result in lower occupancy, lower rents, and often rental concessions like free rent or lower rental rates early in the lease, which mean lower cash flow and smaller appreciation potential. These aren't the markets you should be seeking.

When the demand for real estate is high, there are few vacancies and, property owners raise rents and eliminate or minimize any concessions. In commercial properties, landlords cut back on the tenant improvement (TI) allowance and require the tenants to take the space as-is and make any upgrades or changes to the space at their own expense.

Building permits and absorption

Building permits are often the first tangible step outlining the intent of a developer to build new real estate projects. Therefore, knowing about the issuance of building permits is an essential leading indicator to future supply of real estate.

The trend in the number of building permits tells you how the supply of real estate properties may soon change. A long and sustained rise in permits over several years can indicate that the supply of new property may dampen future price appreciation. Many areas experienced enormous increases in new building during the late-1980s, right before prices peaked due to excess inventory. Conversely, new building dried up in many areas in the late-1970s and early-1980s as onerous interest rates strangled builders and developers. In the early-2000s, despite the record low-interest-rate environment, most parts of the country weren't overbuilding, but by the late-2000s, there was nevertheless an excess of supply. Though building levels were in equilibrium with demand, the problem was that the demand was artificially inflated. This inflation was the result of governmental pressure to increase home ownership by offering creative financing to individuals who were unqualified to borrow such large amounts, as well as speculation by some real estate investors. The crazy and irresponsible speculation was particularly pronounced in certain Sunbelt areas like Las Vegas, Phoenix, and many parts of Florida.

Absorption, the rate at which new buildings are rented and occupied, can be useful to determine the potential for the market to become saturated, or oversupplied with certain types of real estate. A healthy real estate market is one in which the available new properties have rented in a relatively short period of time — typically measured in months. Absorption is measured in housing units for residential properties and in square footage for all commercial types of properties.

Absorption can be either a positive or negative number and is usually tracked on a quarterly and annual basis:

✓ Positive absorption: More space is rented or occupied by owners/ users during the measured time period than was built or taken out of the rental housing supply by demolition or even conversion to owner-occupied condominiums.

✓ Negative absorption: The new supply of a given type of real estate is being built faster than users can or want to use it.

You can obtain information on building permits from your local planning or building department. Absorption statistics aren't as easy to find, but absorption is tracked by local real estate appraisers and real estate brokers. For example, professional real estate brokers holding the CCIM (Certified Commercial Investment Member) designation specialize in the sale of income properties and often have that information. See Chapter 6 for many other reasons to have an appraiser on your real estate team.

Building permits and absorption are property-type specific, and an oversupply in industrial properties generally has no bearing on other types of commercial income properties such as retail or office. The only exception is when the use of a property can be changed. For example, many industrial properties have been upgraded to add office space for manufacturing firms so they can have their administrative functions and operations in the same facility. This type of hybrid usage is more difficult to track — but extremely important to note if it's occurring in your proposed investment market.

Another noteworthy trend for residential real estate investors is that new construction favors single-family homes rather than multifamily apartments. This discrepancy can have a significant impact on your decision whether to invest in single-family rental properties or multifamily properties, because multifamily properties benefit from the reduced competition. There are several reasons for this phenomenon, and we discuss some of them in the section "Considering barriers to entry" later in this chapter.


Availability of alternatives — renting versus buying

When the cost of buying is relatively low compared with the cost of renting, more renters can afford to purchase, thus increasing the number of home sales and lowering demand for rentals. A key indicator you can use to gauge the market is the number of property listings:

✓ Increase in property listings: Increasing numbers of property listings or a significant increase in the time the average property is unsold is an indication of future trouble for real estate price appreciation. However, as property prices reach high levels, some investors decide that they can make more money cashing in and investing elsewhere. When the market is flooded with listings, prospective buyers can be choosier, exerting downward pressure on prices.

✓ Decrease in property listings: A sign of a healthy real estate market is a decreasing and low level of property listings, which indicates that the demand from buyers meets or exceeds the supply of property for sale from sellers. At high prices (relative to the cost of renting), more prospective buyers elect to rent, and the number of sales relative to listings drops.

df w Occupancy tevets

Before you invest your hard earned money, determine the current occupancy levels for your proposed type of income property.

The market occupancy rate is another way to gauge the supply and demand for a given property type in the local market. The market occupancy rate for a particular type of property is the percentage of that type of property available for occupancy that's currently rented. For example, you may find data telling you that there are 2,312 total residential rental units in apartment buildings in a local market, and the occupancy rate is 97 percent (or 2,242 are occupied), which would mean that 3 percent (or approximately 70) of the units are vacant. For commercial, industrial, and retail properties, the occupancy level is calculated based on square footage.

With commercial, industrial, and retail properties, determining the occupancy levels is relatively easy. A quick look at the directory or a walkthrough of the property can give you a lot of information.

The true occupancy rate is actually much more difficult to determine with apartment buildings. With apartments, the vacancies aren't as obvious, and obtaining accurate information can be challenging — most professionally managed properties don't advertise their occupancy levels or volunteer this info (nor do they post tenant directories anymore due to safety and privacy concerns). But fear not, we have some suggestions:

✓ Trade organizations and industry service providers: Some of these groups track this data. For example, the local affiliates of the National Apartment Association ( and the Building Owners and Managers Association ( often publish vacancy and rent surveys for apartments and office buildings, respectively.

✓ The do-it-yourself approach: You can contact owners of comparable properties and offer to collect this data and give them a copy of the results.

After you acquire the info, here's how to use it:

✓ Low vacancy rates: When combined with a low number of building permits, low vacancy rates generally foretell future real estate price appreciation. If you find minimal vacancy in your market, it's a landlord's market with higher demand from tenants for existing units, which is a good sign for real estate owners. And good for real estate investors, if the market prices remain reasonable.

✓ High vacancy rates: High rates indicate an excess supply of real estate, which may put downward pressure on rental rates as many landlords compete to attract tenants.

Concessions, which typically include free rent, often indicate weakness in the rental market. However, some types of real estate and rental markets almost always have concessions, no matter how strong the rental market. This practice is very common in larger professionally managed apartment communities where a prospective tenant's first question when calling to inquire about a potential rental unit is inevitably "What's your special?" Apartments in Phoenix and many other areas of the Sunbelt may be able to raise their rents and maintain occupancies at or above 95 percent, but they can't eliminate the rental concessions or their rental traffic will simply evaporate. In commercial properties, the TI or tenant improvement allowance is similar, with many markets requiring certain levels of dollars per square foot in custom build-outs or upgrades when the rental rate is actually less negotiable. (Check out Chapter 12 for more information on concessions.)

Rental levels

The trend in rent levels, or rental rates, that renters are willing and able to pay over the years also gives a good indication as to the supply/demand relationship for income properties. When the demand for real estate just keeps up with the supply of housing and the local economy continues to grow, rents generally increase. This increase is a positive sign for continued real estate price appreciation.


Of course, you need to be careful to make sure that you're getting the true and complete story on rents. Owners and their property managers are very smooth and savvy and don't allow their quoted rental rates to fall when the market shows some signs of softening. This strategy is logical because other tenants may have recently leased at a higher rate and would be upset to see the new tenants getting a better deal. So owners and property managers offer concessions or other perks to make sure that they're competitive in the current market while maintaining the perception of stable rents.

As a prospective rental property owner competing against these owners, you need to evaluate the current rent levels on a level playing field, so you want to calculate the effective rental rate. For example, if you see a comparable rental property available at $1,200 per month, but the owner is offering a concession of one month free rent on a 12-month lease, the effective rent is really $1,100 per month (the $1,200 loss spread out over the rest of the year).

An advantage of investing in commercial real estate is that there are few governmental regulations and controls, and the relationship between tenants and landlords is essentially a free market. However, residential rent control or rent stabilization (local laws regulating how much rents may increase) is an issue in some cities and towns. Investing in markets with rent control, or even with a pro-tenant environment where a landlord has difficulty terminating a lease, may not provide adequate returns on investment, and appreciation will be more limited. Although occupancy levels are usually strong in such areas, your overall cash flow may be threatened because the property's expenses may rise faster than you can legally raise the rents. In these communities, landlords who invest in major upgrades or capital improvements to a rental unit may not be able to raise rents or recover their costs because any rent increases must be approved by the local rent control board. Then, even if allowed at all, the approved capital improvements are amortized or spread over many years. Don't put your real estate future in the hands of others!

Path of progress

ItBEff Buying real estate in up-and-coming areas with new development or renovated properties not only greatly enhances the ease of finding and keeping good tenants but also leads to higher occupancy, lower turnover, and higher rates of appreciation.

In virtually all major cities, some areas are experiencing new construction and growth — and have the reputation of being the area to live in. But by the time most folks feel this way, you've lost an opportunity to get in when prices have more appreciation potential. So, here are a few indicators to use to stay ahead of the game:

✓ Follow the retailers: You can often take a clue about where you should invest by looking for major retailers who do extensive research before making a decision to open in a given neighborhood. For instance, maybe a new Costco or Sam's Club is anchoring the new shopping center.

✓ Follow the highways: One of the best and most obvious indicators of where new development is headed is transportation. But make sure that the roads or mass transit projects actually get built. With so many funding and environmental challenges today, it can be extremely risky to invest in real estate based on proposed transportation projects. But after they're built, you're sure to find real estate investment opportunities.

But the path of progress isn't limited to new development. Many cities have areas that have seen better days and local leaders are doing their best to revitalize these tired and even blighted sections of town. A key component can be redevelopment districts that are formed with the property tax revenues being diverted to a special redevelopment agency that promotes new projects through a streamlined approval process and financial assistance. Often, the traditional downtown areas are being redeveloped with many incentives for developers and owners willing to be among the first ones in.

Although redevelopment areas can be great opportunities, significant risk is associated with investing in areas that are dynamic and changing. Like transportation projects, sometimes the best intentions of local leaders and redevelopment agencies can hit a snag.

Stepping in the path of progress

One of Robert's best real estate investments was a 30,000-square-foot, two-story medical center complex on three acres in Santee, California, a suburban bedroom community of San Diego. The building had been a hub of activity before the large medical group that occupied the property disbanded. The building was foreclosed on by the lender and was virtually vacant for several years, because the area didn't easily attract new tenants due to the lack of nearby sit-down restaurants and shopping.

However, Robert found out that major redevelopment was planned around the new trolley and transportation center located within a half mile. Besides a multiscreen cinema as the anchor tenant, the brand-new center would include everything from clothing stores to bookstores, plus several new restaurants. Robert was confident that the new center would be a catalyst for the entire area, so he quickly purchased the rundown and neglected two-building center for less than the assessed value on the property tax rolls. His investment plans included significant renovation — including complete exterior painting, parking lot repairs, installation of a large monument sign for tenant promotion, plus cleaning and upgrading the vacant suites. He also renamed the complex Santee Professional Center to improve its image, build identity in the community, and attract nonmedical tenants.

Lest you think that Robert made the perfect investment that had no snags, soon after his purchase the national cinema chain filed bankruptcy and the developer halted plans. But a new developer came in and signed the national department store Target as the anchor tenant, and within 18 months, they had built and fully leased the new 500,000-square-foot shopping center. Now there are several other new office buildings completed or planned, as well as major upgrades to the other buildings in the area. The Santee Professional Center has been running at high occupancy and was recently appraised at nearly three times the acquisition price!

Considering barriers to entry

^jABEft Investing in real estate in an area that has strong demand and limited supply " ' is likely to enhance your profitably. One of the trends to follow is the creation of more roadblocks to new development and thus severe limitations on the construction of additional buildings to meet even the increasing demands for real estate from natural population growth.

For example, maybe your chosen area has inhabitants with strong antiapartment sentiments or concerns about the environment. If you currently own or quickly invest in existing apartments in such areas, these factors can actually work to your benefit, because they make the addition of more housing units (competition) difficult.

We suggest that you look for markets where natural and even man-made barriers to entry exist.

The popular board game Monopoly taught most people from an early age about the importance of location and barriers to entry. When you control the playing field and prime properties, you dramatically improve your odds of successfully building wealth. In the following sections, we cover some of the more prominent factors that limit the supply of real estate and enhance cash flow and future appreciation for those who already own existing properties.

But, in the long term, the lack of buildable land in an area can prove a problem. Real estate prices that are too high may cause employers and employees to relocate to less expensive areas. If you want to invest in real estate in an area with little buildable land and sky-high prices, run the numbers to see whether the deal makes economic sense. (We explain how to do this in Chapters 11 and 12.)

Environmental issues

Individuals and organizations concerned about the environment aren't a new trend. Environmental issues are now a key factor in the potential development of real estate projects in just about every area of the country.

Those concerned about the environment are expressing their disapproval of new and proposed projects with more authority and success because federal and state laws require excruciating investigative reports on all aspects of proposed land development. It's extremely difficult in most urban areas to find land suitable for development that doesn't have some limitations or require remediation, such as the relocation or preservation of endangered species or plants. (Remediation can also include the cleanup and removal of contaminants.)

Many of these laws or guidelines find universal support — no one wants to live in a concrete world or destroy our beautiful countryside. And nearly everyone wants clean air, clean water, and the highest quality of living possible.

But preserving and protecting our environment comes at a cost: A large portion of potential developable land is being taken out of production or even consideration for use. The land that isn't available for development is being broadened and now includes much of the government-owned lands and virtually all land that can be classified as a hillside, wetland, or vernal pool (seasonal or temporary wetland). In many areas, additional swaths of public and private land are being designated and set aside by governmental agencies to protect endangered plants and wildlife.

These man-made decisions to preserve land, combined with other factors, can lead to a shortage of buildable land.

Shortage of buildable land

Economics 101 teaches that strong demand and a limited supply lead to rationing through higher pricing. Well, that is exactly what's happening over the decades in many of America's major metropolitan areas as people exhaust the supply of buildable land (notwithstanding the general decline in real estate prices in the late-2000s).

Upward pressure on real estate prices tends to be greatest in areas with little buildable land. This characteristic was one of the things that attracted Eric to invest in real estate in the San Francisco Bay Area when he moved there in the mid-1980s. If you look at a map of this area, you can see that the city of San Francisco and the communities to the south are on a peninsula. The ocean, bay inlets, and mountains bound the rest of the Bay Area. More than 80 percent of the land in the greater Bay Area isn't available for development because state and federal government parks, preserves, and other areas protect the land from development, or the land is impossible to develop. Of the land available for development in San Francisco and the vast majority of it in nearby counties, virtually all of it had already been developed.

CANES: Citizens Against Nearly Everything

Many cities are now putting more authority into the hands of local and even neighborhood planning boards that exercise their influence and control over proposed new developments. Although many of the representatives on these local planning boards are just interested in maintaining the aesthetics or compatibility of proposed developments with the existing land uses, some are motivated by another agenda.

The term CANES — Citizens Against Nearly Everything — was coined by then-San Diego Padres President Larry Lucchino, whom Robert interviewed on his weekly radio show many times while the baseball team proposed and fought for the development of a new ballpark. Various groups claiming to represent taxpayers, citizens, and environmentalists objected at every opportunity. Ultimately, after years of delays and dozens of lawsuits, the ballpark finally opened in downtown San Diego.

This trend isn't unique to San Diego. Across the country, those opposed to growth seek to avoid increased traffic, congestion, and overcrowding of their schools and parks. In many communities and neighborhoods, homeowners are expressing their disapproval of new multifamily development. (If you want a big turnout at city hall, just announce that 300 new low-income apartments are being built across the street from the new for-sale housing tract.)

Such resistance to new development or even redevelopment isn't new. But it does seem to be a trend that should be considered by even a real estate investor with a duplex or a couple of rental homes. Unbridled growth isn't the answer (nor are stagnation and decline), but our point is that you need to evaluate the impact of such attitudes on your income properties. Barriers to entry are a reality that you shouldn't overlook.

For example, increased demand in a community opposed to growth results in higher prices, so investing in these areas certainly enhances your prospects for appreciation. However, well-planned or smart growth can also lead to a higher quality of living and greater long-term returns on your investment.

Condo conversion and construction defect lawsuits

Carefully evaluate the impact of the condominium market in your area because it can have a material effect on the overall supply of rental housing. Apartments converted to condos often result in fewer rental units because condo conversion units are typically purchased by owner-occupants that find such housing to be a financially viable entry-level opportunity. But the reverse trend is also a concern because many areas have a significant number of failed condo conversion projects where only a portion of the units are sold; the remaining units are in foreclosure or bankruptcy and are being sold in bulk to owners who rent them until the market improves. New condominiums are often purchased by investors to use as rentals that will compete for tenants. Some of these projects were financially unsuccessful and are in the hands of court-appointed receivers or lenders. These are supply and demand factors that can affect your real estate market and should be part of your real estate strategy.

Many apartment buildings in urban areas were originally built as condominiums, but market weakness or the threat of construction defect legislation (discussed later in this section) led to a business decision by the developers to operate these condos as rental units. There isn't much controversy about the ultimate conversion of these rental condos to owner-occupied units; it's just a function of market timing, with most remaining as rentals in the current market environment.

However, a dilemma faced by many cities is the excessive number of conversion projects of apartment rental communities into condominiums. On one hand, the severe shortage of affordable entry-level housing in many cities made the conversion of apartments to condominiums an excellent opportunity for first-time home buyers. The concern was that conversion of apartments to owner-occupied condos reduced the supply of rentals.

How are condo conversions typically handled? The most common game plan for a conversion of an existing apartment community to a condominium project almost always consists of extensive exterior renovation, including painting, landscaping, and other cosmetic items. Occasionally, local ordinances require some structural repairs or upgrades, but the exterior work is primarily limited to the cosmetic issues. In other words, rarely do developers spend a lot of money on a new roof!

The unit interiors also receive a complete overhaul and upgrade — new flooring, window treatments, new and often upgraded appliances, and solid coun-tertops and other decorative touches to really make the unit shine. These converted condos can be quite attractive as reasonably priced investments that look great and are well located, many times in areas where new development is difficult because the area is completely built-out and the cost to acquire the land would be prohibitive. But you need to look deeper than the smoke and mirrors that create the attractive façade of quality construction.

The problem is that in most cases, the existing building systems, such as the roof, plumbing, electrical, and HVAC, haven't been upgraded or replaced. So you may have a brand-new interior that looks sharp, but the major structural systems are quite old. Also, properties built under the code requirements in effect at the time of original construction usually have lower standards for weatherproofing, insulation, and noise reduction. If you buy one of these converted apartments as a rental property, you may not know that your tenants can hear everything (and we mean everything) that goes on in the adjacent unit. That is, until they call to complain!

This conversion of apartments to condominiums can impact the rental market in one of two ways.

✓ Some of the condos are purchased by individuals that intend to live there personally. In this case, that reduces the rental housing stock, which means less competition for apartments.

Further, a good balance of owner-occupied housing units (with their inherent increased pride of ownership) can be healthy for the overall rental market. We strongly advise real estate investors to purchase rental homes in areas that are predominantly owner-occupied.

✓ Other converted condos aren't owner occupied, with many investors snapping up the reasonably priced units, speculating that they'll enjoy good returns. These units will be rented out, so there is no reduction in the rental housing stock.

In the long run, we believe that investing in condominiums that began life as apartments isn't wise. In the early years, when the appliances and surface interior and exterior cosmetic finishes are relatively new, not much can go wrong. But after the true age of the building begins to show through increased repairs and maintenance, the volunteer association board of directors will face a real challenge. Will it be willing and able to dramatically increase the monthly assessments to cover the increased costs and to accrue the funds necessary to handle major capital items? Robert has managed associations for 30+ years, and his experience is that the assessments stay artificially low and the property condition declines over time. You don't want to own a unit in an association with major physical problems and no reserves.

The construction of new, attached, for-sale housing (or condominiums) has been severely restricted since the 1990s in many parts of the country due to construction defect lawsuits. The building industry claims that such lawsuits are unnecessary and extremely wasteful, and the attorneys representing homeowners insist that litigation would be unwarranted if the builders simply didn't build such shoddy and poorly constructed housing units. At the end of the day, the reality is that construction defect lawsuits are reducing the number of attached housing projects that are being built, because insurance is virtually nonexistent for developers and subcontractors.

Government's effect on real estate

This country offers many examples of the importance of state and local government on prospects for prosperity. The following are key governmental and quasi-governmental factors to consider when researching a prospective community in which to invest:

✓ Tax considerations: For decades, California had an unbeatable combination of great weather and job growth that attracted millions from around the world. In the early-2000s, California suffered from a declining economy and what some real estate investors and business owners felt was excessive government regulation and taxation. After the recall of Governor Gray Davis in 2003 and the election of Arnold Schwarzenegger, there was a lot of reason for "Kali-fornians" to be optimistic. Unfortunately, the last few years have seen increasing tension between political factions and an ever-increasing litany of pro-tenant, anti-investment, job-killing legislation policies that offset many of the natural attributes of California and are being exploited by other western states.

California real estate investors and others with means are establishing legal residency in Nevada, Texas, Washington, Florida, and other states without state income taxes in increasing numbers. It can make a significant improvement in a person's overall income tax liability, and it may not even be that much of a sacrifice. For example, a California real estate syndicator that attended one of Robert's property management courses found that living on the east side of beautiful Lake Tahoe (in the state of

Nevada) was just as nice as the west (or California) side, where the top income tax rate can add up to another 10 percent in addition to the federal income tax.

You should also have a detailed understanding of the property taxation system and appeals process. Be sure to determine whether a proposed income property acquisition is in a special assessment district where additional taxes are assessed against properties. Such special assessment districts may offer some advantages like better schools, parks, and fire and police services and may be well worth the additional annual investment. But you should know in advance how much the additional costs will be, how long you'll be required to participate, and exactly what you're getting in return so that you can properly evaluate whether you'll be able to generate a commensurate increase in your rental income.

✓ Economic development incentives: The economic development groups for many of these states are advertising in business publications and major newspapers and aggressively encouraging employers to relocate with incredible real estate incentives such as virtually free land or lower property and/or income taxation. Besides lucrative offers of real estate and tax incentives, as the global economy becomes ever more competitive, businesses are being lured to locations that can reduce their costs of labor, energy, and transportation.

✓ Community's reputation: Your local chamber of commerce, tourism bureau, and city hall all work very hard to establish the right reputation and attract the top employers. These organizations can have a real impact on the market environment for businesses and thus create more jobs in the long run, which leads to increased population and higher demand for all types of real estate.

✓ Business-friendly environment: You can't underestimate the importance of a probusiness attitude among state, regional, and local governments to help create a vibrant economy where your real estate investments can prosper.

Dead Organized

Dead Organized

This audio book is all about Estate Planning and being organize for it. Learn within this audio and guide how to become more organized so you can prepare yourself for planning.

Get My Free Audio Book

Post a comment